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Sheetali Pranayama (Cooling Breath) – Steps, Benefits, & Precautions

Curious about how to practice Sheetali Pranayama? Read more to learn the meaning, steps, and Sheetali Pranayama, and health benefits. Plus, five tips to get the most out of this yoga breathing technique!

Indian man doing Sheetali Pranayama in cross-legged posture on blue mat
Sheetali Pranayama. Photograph by Akshay Gupta

Agni (Fire) is venerated in Yoga and Ayurveda. It represents intelligence, action, and digestion. We use yoga poses, mudras, and 'heating' pranayama like Surya Bhedana or Bhastrika to stoke the inner fire to our benefit. But what happens when the fire is too sharp and fiery? It creates imbalances on the opposite side of the spectrum.

Not cool (pun intended). Luckily, yoga has equally effective resources to balance excess heat, add moisture, and Pitta imbalance as per Ayurveda. Sitkari and Sheetali Pranayama are two such breathing techniques you can learn, even if you don't practice yoga.

There is growing evidence that pranayama can mitigate the harmful effects of stress and inflammation [1]. Several studies even indicate [2, 3, 4] that Sheetali pranayama can be used as a standalone practice to manage hypertension and heart disease.

We covered Sitkari pranayama in a previous post, missing no chance to point out how it scores big with yoginis. Now, it’s time to look at its sister practice – Sheetali Pranayama, which is a nearly identical technique that triggers the calming and cooling mechanisms of the body.

What is Sheetali Pranayama?

Sheetali pranayama is a yoga breathing technique that involves inhaling through the mouth while curling the tongue and protruding it half an inch outside the lips. The breath is retained for as long as comfortable and exhalation is done through the nostrils with the mouth closed. Sheetali pranayama calms the mind and soothes the body.

Sheetal is a work in the Hindi language. It is used to describe something 'cold and soothing.' Think of an ice pack over a strained muscle, cool breeze on a summer evening, or cucumber slices over sore eyes. Sheetali breathing is a metaphorical ice pack on a hot day or after a fast-paced yoga session. It’s a great way to wind down or prepare yourself for meditation.

"With a protruding tongue a little outside the lips, draw prana in to the tongue. Perform Kumbhaka (breath retention). Then the practitioner should slowly release the breath through the nostrils." - Hatha Yoga Pradipika (Chapter 2, Verse 39)

Sheetali Pranayama: Step-by-step Instructions

  1. Preparation: Get into a meditation posture. Close your eyes and relax with a few deep breaths. Place your hands on the knees. Proceed to the next step when you are ready.

  2. Inhalation: Roll the tongue into a tube by curling the sides. The tongue should look like a folded taco (U-shaped). Stick it out by 3/4-inch. Inhale through the mouth as if sipping air through a straw. Keep your chest open and feel the cool air through your chest and torso.

  3. Breath Retention: Withdraw your tongue, close the mouth, and swallow/gulp the breath. At this point, you can retain the breath for as long as comfortable (optional). Beginners should focus on the inhale-exhale for the first week. Add breath retention later.

  4. Exhalation: Exhale gently through the nostrils to empty the lungs. With this, you have completed one round of Sheetali pranayama.

  5. Follow Up: No follow-up is necessary. Once you wrap up, stay seated for a minute or two. Keep your eyes closed and quietly observe yourself. Do you feel calm and comforted? Increase the count if you don't feel any difference. You are the best judge of any positive or negative effects; use these observations to fine-tune your yoga breathing practice.

Time and Duration

  • Practice Sheetali Pranayama as and when needed but always on an empty stomach.

  • Start with 3 to 5 minutes or 8 to 10 rounds per session.

  • Raise the count gradually.

  • In hot weather, you can do 50 rounds per day, split into two sessions.

Curling or Rolling the Tongue

Close up of curled tongue during Sheetali Pranayama
U-shaped Tongue

Looking at the featured image, you might assume rolling the tongue is easy. Oddly enough, a significant part of the population cannot do it. Apparently, we have a 'tongue rolling gene' that allows us to curl the lateral edges of the tongue to form a tube.

If you missed out on that genetic inheritance, you will never be able to do it. Don't fret. That is why yoga has an alternative to attain the benefits of Sheetali Pranayama. It's called Sitkari - you can learn it here.

Sheetali Contraindications

Sheetali pranayama is contraindicated in the following conditions -

  • Asthma, bronchitis, and respiratory diseases

  • Flu, congestion, or excess mucous or phlegm

  • Low blood pressure

  • Constipation

  • Cold weather, especially for Vata and Kapha types (as per Ayurveda)

For obvious reasons, the breathing technique should not be performed in air-conditioned rooms and during late autumn and fall/winter. People with cardiovascular problems or hypertension should practice Sheetali pranayama without breath retention. If you are using breath retention and/or internal locks, follow the contraindications for those techniques as well. Consult a yoga teacher and/or a physician if you are on medication or suffer from chronic health problems.

Sheetali Pranayama Benefits

Satyananda Saraswati calls Sheetali Pranayama a breathing technique to balance heat within the body. He describes the effect as "reduces emotional excitation, induces muscular relaxation, promotes tranquility, and activates brain centers associated with temperature regulation."

Sheetali is also frequently used for its therapeutic benefits in Ayurveda. It strengthens digestion and reduces Pitta dosha by reducing the hot and sharp manifestations of fire in the body. People use it for relief in acidity (acid reflux), hot flashes, and to bring down a mild fever.

Other Sheetali pranayama benefits include:

  • Soothing effect on the nervous and mind

  • Cools the deep tissues and lower organs

  • Lowers blood pressure and reduces stomach acid

  • Strengthens digestion and reduces thirst/hunger

  • Balances the function of the endocrine system

  • Helps with insomnia if performed before bed (2 to 3 hours after food)

  • Alleviates heat-related skin problems such as acne, rashes, and redness

Modifications and Variations

Sheetali variations include adding breath retention and practicing the abdomen lock (Uddiyana Bandha) during breath retention. Alternatively, you can also use the Vishnu Mudra to partially block the nostrils to slow down inhalation and exhalation during Sheetali Pranayama.

Start with 1 to 2 seconds of retention and increase the duration gradually. Once you can retain the breath for a long time, add the abdomen lock during inhaled retention. These additions are a part of an advanced routine.

Check contraindications for breath retention. Attempt variations only after mastering the basic practice, ideally under the guidance of a yoga expert.

Recommended Mudras

Generally, Chin Mudra, Anjali Mudra, and Jnana/Gyan mudra are used with Sheetali pranayama. You can use Pitta Nashak Mudra or Shanka Mudra too. These yogic hand gestures are known to strengthen digestion, reduce heat, and improve prana-flow.

5 Tips to Enhance Your Sheetali Breathing Practice

  • DO Sheetali breathing in a seated, cross-legged posture. It should not be attempted while standing, walking, or performing other tasks. If you cannot sit cross-legged, sitting on a chair is permissible if your body is aligned correctly.

  • DON’T do Sheetali Pranayama after a meal. Always practice yoga breathing on an empty stomach or 3 hours after a meal. Avoid drinking water for 10 minutes before and after.

  • DO Sheetali in a space with clean air and good ventilation. Our nasal passages filter, purify and warm the air before it reaches the lungs. In Sheetali pranayama, we breathe through the mouth. The inhaled air remains cool but, at the same time, it is completely unfiltered.

  • DON’T follow up Sheetali with any heating activity (exercise, yoga poses) or hot/warm food. You can do so safely but it will negate or nullify the cooling benefits of Sheetali.

  • DO swallow (saliva) during your practice if your tongue, mouth, or throat feels dry or astringent.

Other Cooling Yoga Breathing Techniques

There are three breathing techniques in yoga to ‘cool’ the system.

Of these, Sheetali and Sitkari are similar. They offer the same benefits and are seen as an alternative to each other. Generally, people who cannot form the U-Shaped tongue will learn Sitkari pranayama and those with dentures or missing teeth practice Sheetali.

Chandra Bhedana is slightly different. It involves breathing exclusively through the left nostril. There is an overlap in terms of benefits, but it works on different mechanisms on the breath and biology. It's equally easy to do and worth having in your arsenal of calming yoga techniques.

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