Chandra Bhedana Pranayama in Yoga - Meaning, Steps and Benefits
Chandra Bhedana Pranayama, also called Chandra Bhedi, is a forced single-nostril breathing technique used in yoga to create a feeling of rest and purify the Chandra Nadi. In this post, we discuss the meaning, purpose, and benefits of Chandra Bhedana.
In the simplest terms, Chandra Bhedana means left-nostril breathing. In yoga theory, the left nostril is linked to the Chandra Nadi or Moon Channel. Nadis are energy pathways in the subtle body that transport prana-energy. We have covered them in detail in a previous post.
The origins of Chandra Bhedana Pranayama are found inthe Yoga Chudamani Upanishad, one of the seminal texts of Kundalini and Tantra Yoga. Yoga texts state that Chandra Bhedana Pranayama purges bad karma - the psychological or emotional baggage we carry.
This pranayama is also used to purify the Chandra or Ida Nadi (Lunar channel) and awakens Kundalini energy. Such Chandra Bhedana benefits may seem esoteric, but generally speaking, it is an excellent resource to calm an anxious and agitated mind.
“Assuming Padmasana, a yogi must inhale through the left nostril, hold the breath as per his capacity, and exhale through the right nostril. Doing this the yogi should meditate on the disc of the moon or the ocean of milk in the heart.” - Yoga Chundamani Upanishad
The Upanishad outlines the steps of this pranayama technique without giving it a name. The terms ‘Chandra Bhedi, Chandra Nadi, or Chandra Bhedana Pranayama’ were coined by later-day yogis. It paved the way for it's english translation, Moon-Piercing Breath.
Meaning and Etymology
Chandra Bhedana is a yoga breathing technique perfomed in a cross-legged meditation posture. It involves blocking the right nostril, forcefully inhaling through the left nostril, retaining the breath as long as comfortable, blocking the left nostril, and exhaling through the right nostril. The process is repeated as long a desired and the practice is called Chandra Bhedana breathing.
The nostrils are blocked using a yoga hand gesture called Vishnu Mudra hand gesture. The benefits of Chandra Bhedana include calming the nerves, purifying the Chandra Nadi, lowering blood pressure, and cooling the mind and body. We will discuss the benefits in detail below.
Chandra = Moon | Bhedana = to pass through | Pranayama = exercises to regulate/control
The Sanskrit term Chandra translates to 'moon' and bhedana means 'to pass through.' Thereby, Chandra Bhedana is a breathing technique wherein “the breath passes through the moon (energy).” The Moon refers to the Moon Channel we mentioned eailer.
Chandra Bhedana: Step-by-Step Instructions
Get into any of the acceptable postures for pranayama and indulge in some calm, even breathing to relax.
Form the Vishnu Mudra gesture with your right hand (see illustration). The left hand can be placed on the left knee or thigh. Exhale and empty the lungs when you are ready to begin.
Using the mudra (right hand), press the tip of your thumb against the right nostril to block it completely. Beginners can inhale through a fully open left nostril and experienced yogis can partially block the left nostril with the ring finger.
Inhale gently through the left nostril to fill the lungs. After inhalation, press the ring finger against the left nostril to block it. At this point, both nostrils are blocked and you should hold the breath (antara kumbha) as per your capacity.
When you are ready to exhale, keep the left nostril blocked (the one from which you inhaled), and open the right nostril. Exhale through the right nostril and empty the lungs.
This is one round of Chandra Bhedana Pranayama. You can continue for 8 to 10 rounds without a break or pause.
Chandra Bhedana Pranayama can be done at any time of the day on an empty stomach. Beginners can started with 10 rounds and extend it to 10 minutes over time. But you should ease into the practice and increase the rounds and duration very slowly.
Chandra Bhedana Saftey and Precautions
Chandra Bhedana Pranayama is contraindicated in the following cases -
Asthma, bronchitis, or respiratory issues
Flu, cough, or severe illness
Constipation or chest congestion
Low blood pressure
Additionally, breath retention may aggravate certain underlying health conditions like hypertension and anxiety. To avoid it, you can do the pranayama without breath retention. Lastly, Surya and Chandra Bhedana Pranayama should not be done on the same day.
Chandra Bhedana Pranayama Benefits
1. Improves prana-flow to Ida Nadi
Chandra Bhedana Pranayama is used to improve the flow of prana in the Ida Channel. The classical text (Yoga Chudamani Upanishad) notes that performing Chandra Bhedana regularly for two months purifies Ida (the left energy channel), leads to good health, and significantly improves a yogi’s ability to retain the breath(1).
2. Therapeutic Uses in Ayurveda
In Ayurveda, left nostril breathing is used to reduce fever and treat heartburn(2). For mental health, Chandra Bhedana can be of great help when you are anxious, restless, or afflicted with insomnia. Additionally, the pranayama can help a yogi turn inward for deep meditation.
3. Kundalini Awakening in Tantra Yoga
As for the esoteric aspects, Chandra Bhedana is one of the methods used in Tantra Yoga to kindle the dormant Kundalini energy. You can learn more about it in the teachings of Yogi Bhajan. If you are looking for an energizing alternative to Chandra Bhedana Pranayama, try Surya Bhedana Pranayama, which has the opposite effect.
4. Parasympathetic Activation
A study(3) observed the impact of 15 minutes of Chandra Bhedana on 30 students in the 18-25 age group. Their findings indicate Chandra Bhedana Pranayama decreases the sympathetic discharge and reduces stress arousal patterns. Another study (4) on Surya and Chandra Pranayama noted forced single-nostril breathing has an activating and relaxing effect on the sympathetic nervous system.
5. Improves Spatial Memory
A study(5) with a control group observed that the trained groups who practiced right, left, and alternate nostril breathing for ten days. The participants showed higher spatial memory scores than those who did not. The study indicates a possible link between breathing techniques like Chandra Bhedana Pranayama and spatial memory.
These are just some of the science-backed benefits of Chandra Bhedana Pranayama. There are many anecdotal benefits mentioned in classical and modern yoga texts.
Chandra Bhedana Pranayama Variations
Variation with Mula Bandha
After practicing the steps above, add internal breath retention (Antara kumbhaka) – retain the breath between the inhalation and exhalation. Perform Mula bandha in conjunction with breath retention. Over time, you should be able to retain the breath for 15 to 20 seconds and hold the bandhas over retention.
Add internal breath retention + Mula bandha to the basic practice.
Variation with Uddiyana Bandha
Follow the processes mentioned in the step-by-step instructions of Chandra Bhedana Pranayama. Then perform the first variation mentioned above - Mula bandha. In addition to those two steps, add external breath retention (bahya kumbhaka) and Uddiyana Bandha (the abdomen lock). Prolonging external breath retention is difficult. Approach it without forcing the body beyond its natural limits. Start slow and gradually increase capacity to 10 seconds.
Add internal retention + Mula bandha or External retention + Uddiyana bandha.
To reiterate, the most advanced variation of Chandra Bhedana Pranayama is as follows:
Block the right nostril completely.
Inhale through the partially blocked left nostril.
Retain the breath (inside) with Mula bandha.
Block left nostril completely.
Exhale through the partially blocked right nostril.
Retain breath (outside) with Udddiyana bandha.
Purpose of Chandra Bhedana Pranayama
Through breath observation, every yoga aspirant knows that the left and right nostrils don't function simultaneously. At any given point, one is passive and the other is active. This process continues in what science calls the nasal cycle. Using Surya or Chandra Bhedana Pranayama, we can alter the cycle and influence our physical or mental activity.
Ida (left) and Pingala (right) - Energy Pathways or Channels in Yoga
In yoga theory, prana flows in the body through energy channels or pathways called Nadis. Among these, Ida (left), Pingala (right), and Sushumna (Central) are considered to be of great importance. They emerge from the pelvic floor and extend to the head.
Ida represents the creative, feminine principle. It has lunar or moon-like attributes. Therefore, it is also called Chandra (Moon) Nadi. It is connected to the right brain hemisphere and parasympathetic nervous system.
Pingala represents the awakening principle and has masculine and solar attributes. It is also called the Surya (Sun) Nadi. It is associated with the sympathetic nervous system. We will learn more about that in Surya Bhedana Pranayama.
We breathe continuously and repeatedly through the left nostril during Chandra Bhedana Pranayama. It enhances the flow of prana to the right brain hemisphere. This switches on the parasympathetic nervous system. In turn, the pranayama calms the "over-thinking" mind and lowers heart rate and blood pressure.
Moreover, it activates the parasympathetic nervous system and results in a 'comforting' feeling.
Do not forget to check out the steps and benefits of Sheetali and Sitkari, the other two soothing pranayama used by yogis. Just don't "over cool" your body by doing all three pranayama on the same day. Any one of them should be sufficient to attain the benefits.
1. Iyengar, 2005, The Light on Pranayama, Element; First Edition, United Kingdom 2. Watts, 2018, Yoga Therapy for Digestive Health, Singing Dragon; First Edition, United Kingdom 3. Dheeraj, Jeph, et al., "The Effect of Chandra Bhedi Pranayama (Left Nostril Breathing) on Cardiorespiratory and Autonomic Parameters", Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences (SJAMS), Nov. 2018, doi:10.21276/sjams.2018.6.10.59 4. Telles, Shirley, et al. "Breathing Through A Particular Nostril Can Alter Metabolism and Autonomic Activities", Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol 38, no. 2, pp. 133-137 5. Naveen, K. V., et al. “Yoga Breathing through a Particular Nostril Increases Spatial Memory Scores without Lateralized Effects.” Psychological Reports, vol. 81, no. 2, Oct. 1997, pp. 555–561, doi:10.2466/pr0.1922.214.171.1245.